Sunday, 23 April 2017

samson adebayo

5 Simple Tips To Stop Body Odour Permanently


There are times, when no matter how much deodorant you wear, the body odor just doesn’t go away. These are the days when you feel if you could do something permanent about the problem. So here’s how you can keep body odour at bay in four easy steps.

There are few things that you have to follow, there’s nothing you can do about it.
1. So stop eating too much onions, garlic and methi. They tend to seep out of the body pores and results in body odor. No matter how well onions go with that spicy curry, you need to keep them at safe distance.
2. Keep visiting your bathroom. Yes, we mean take bath regularly. Bathing twice a day during summers is a good idea. This will definitely put many problems aside.
3. Use talcum powder. These are an underestimated lot of toiletries which can really make a lot of difference. They not only make you feel fresh but also help in reducing body odour, especially during summers.
5. Find a good antiperspirant deodorant. This not only keep you smelling fresh but also helps in reducing sweating. Summers are the time when you tend to sweat more and thus body odour.

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Saturday, 15 April 2017

samson adebayo

New Music Alert!!! B.O.L.G - 100 (must cop)

B.O.L.G BOLG NONI as he is often introduced officially kicks off the year 2017 with new music titled 100 after he had a successful 2016 with the release and acceptability of Assistant Boyfriend.
 The track was produced, mixed and mastered by Teejay and this song sends signals of what we should expect from the Obafemi Awolowo University undergraduate of in 2017. Download, listen, enjoy and share!

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samson adebayo

See how to make money with #EvergreenFunds now!!!

We all have a unique set of savings goals and it is only when you take a closer look at them you will begin to get the answer for the best investment plan suitable for your needs and requirements. Just when Nigerians gave up on Ponzi Ever green funds is making them smile they have forgotten the recession. At evergreen funds, we offer a range of investments suitable for every pocket size. Like any good portfolio, the best investments you can make for yourself are diversified, carefully managed and geared to the long term.
We Are EvergreeN

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Monday, 10 April 2017

samson adebayo

Top 10 Best Foods For Diabetes Patients

                    Image result for food
The best foods for diabetes are most often whole foods that are not processed, such as fruits and vegetables. The foods below will also help you meet your nutritional needs as well as lower your risk of diabetes complications such as heart disease. You don't have to eat all of these foods, but incorporating some or all into your diabetes meal plan will help improve your overall health.

1. Oats: You may not think of oatmeal as a superfood, but it can help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Oatmeal contains high amounts of magnesium, which helps the body use glucose and secrete insulin properly.

2. Fish: Fish is rich in protein, it will help to keep you satisfied; but also, fish contains a special type of fat that helps cool inflammation. Thousands of studies show that people with the highest blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have less body-wide inflammation, the very inflammation that leads to and worsens diabetes and weight problems. A fish-rich diet can also reduce your risk of developing health problems, especially stroke, as a result of your diabetes.

3. Spinach: Spinach is one of many leafy greens that have been shown to drop the risk of developing diabetes. It's loaded with vitamins and minerals. A 1-cup serving of raw spinach or 1/2 cup cooked provides over. This leafy green veggie is high in beta-carotene, an antioxidant the body uses to make vitamin A. Beta-carotene also protects cells from free-radical damage, which contributes to chronic illnesses and aging.

4. Tomatoes: Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamins C and A, plus they are rich in lycopene, a powerful antioxidant. Lycopene-rich tomato products help protect against certain cancers, particularly prostate cancer. Increased intake of lycopene is also associated with a significantly decreased risk for heart disease. It is easier for your body to absorb lycopene from cooked and processed tomatoes, such as tomato juice, than from fresh tomatoes. Also, canned products such as tomato paste, tomato sauce, and pasta sauce have approximately seven times more lycopene than raw tomatoes. Tomatoes have also been shown to combat inflammation due to nutrients such as carotenoids and bioflavonoids -- that can help to lower the risk or heart disease.

5. Sweet Potatoes: Sweet potato contains anthocyanins, which are the natural pigments that give the sweet potato its deep orange color and the antioxidants believed to have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antimicrobial qualities.

6. Walnuts: Walnuts contain the polyunsaturated fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid, which has been shown to lower inflammation. The L-arginine, omega-3s, fiber, vitamin E, and other phytochemicals found in walnuts and other tree nuts make them potent: scientists have found them to have antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and anti-high cholesterol actions. These powers can help stop and reverse the progression of chronic conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

7. Grapes: Eating more whole fruits, particularly grapes, blueberries, and apples, was significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a Harvard study published in the British Medical Journal in 2013. People who ate at least two servings each week of certain whole fruits reduced their risk for type 2 diabetes by as much as 23 percent when compared to those who ate less than one serving per month. Eating the whole fruit seems to be key, though; researchers found that fruit juice drinkers faced as much as a 21 percent increased risk of developing diabetes.

8. Beans: These little legumes pack a powerful punch for diabetics, with a winning combination of high-quality carbohydrates, lean protein, and soluble fiber that helps stabilize the body's blood-sugar levels and keeps hunger in check. Study found that type 2 diabetes patients who ate more legumes had improved blood sugar control and reduced their risk of heart disease.

9. Eggs: Eggs provide a great dose of satiating protein, and are a healthy choice compared to many meats. For people with diabetes, nutrition experts do recommend limiting yolks to about three times a week, but you can have whites more often. Eggs are “perfect food for blood sugar control, and mention weight-loss or maintenance.”

10. Carrots: Cooked or raw, carrots are a healthy addition to any meal plan. While cooked carrots have the rich texture of starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, they are classified as non- starchy veggies because they don't contain a lot of carbohydrate. Carrots are noted for their high vitamin A, made from the antioxidant beta-carotene in carrots. This vitamin is necessary for good vision and immune function, and it may help prevent the development of some cancers, according to the Mayo Clinic.


Credits: diabeticlivingonline; Mayo clinic, WebMD
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Sunday, 9 April 2017

samson adebayo

#BBNaijaFinale - Based on logistics Efe wins Big Brother Naija 2017

Efe, a graduate in Economics and rapper, has officially won has officially won Big Brother Naija 'See Gobe' 2017.  He will be given 25 million naira cash prize and a brand new Kia Sorento SUV car. Congratulations to him. More photos after the cut.

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Saturday, 25 March 2017

samson adebayo


We present to you The 12 benefits of drinking beer:

1. Beer keeps your kidneys healthy A Finnish study singled out beer among other alcoholic beverages, finding that it was better for your kidneys. In fact, each bottle of beer you drink reduces the risk of developing kidney stones by 40%.

2. Beer for better digestion Beer, and especially dark beer, contains up to one gram of soluble fibre* in each 30 cl glass - unlike wine, which doesn’t contain any fibre at all. Fibre plays an important role in intestinal transit (a fibre deficiency can cause gastric and intestinal disorders such as constipation or diarrhoea). ...
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samson adebayo

6 Cooking Hacks That Turn You Into A Master Chef

               Image result for food

Do you love to cook but find that some things completely elude you? Sometimes the things that seem like they should be easy can be a source of frustration. Maybe you cook things a little too long or can’t get things to quit sticking.
Don’t give up. Even the best cooks need a little help now and then to make things easier. Here are 6 cooking hacks to help you out:

1. Prevent pasta from sticking together without the oil.

A lot of people think adding oil to the water before you boil pasta is the way to keep it from sticking. It can, but it also makes the pasta sauce slide right off. Using the right amount of water, 1 liter per 100 grams of dry pasta and 1.5 liters for 100 grams of fresh pasta, will alleviate both of those issues.

2. Use baking soda for easy to peel boiled eggs.

Add about a teaspoon of baking soda to cold water in the pot before you put your eggs in. When the water boils, cover the pot and take it off the heat for 13 minutes, and there you go. Easy to peel eggs!

3. Reheat in the shape of a ring.

Arrange the food you’re going to reheat in a circle and leave the center empty before you put it in the microwave. It will reheat evenly every time.

4. Don’t overcook your fish.

Most fish only need 3-5 minutes per side to cook. If you have a meat thermometer handy, the perfect internal temperature is 145 degrees.

5. Keep lettuce from wilting with a paper towel.

If you wrap your lettuce in a paper towel before you put it into the refrigerator, it will stay crisp longer. The paper towel absorbs any excess moisture that can cause wilting.

6. Time your boiled eggs.

If you like a runny yolk, boil them for about 6 minutes and, for completely cooked through eggs, boil for about 10 minutes.
These 6 cooking hacks will save you time and frustration. Try them and you’ll see how easy cooking can be.

700,800 hours = Lifetime

Make everything you do matter!

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Monday, 20 March 2017

samson adebayo

Banana Peels Are Actually Good For Your Health , See why

All this time we’ve been eating the insides of bananas when it is the peel that is three times more fortified with nutrients. Next time you instinctively motion to fling that slip hazard into the trash can, think twice. Close your eyes, pinch your nose, and try a bite of the bitter, stringy skin. If you can muster the taste and texture then here are the health benefits you will reap, no matter how una“peel”ing it might seem.

1. You will lower your cholesterol

Your cholesterol can be lowered by increasing intake of fiber, which decreases risk of heart attack or stroke, and is a study-proven option for bolstering any diet. Banana peels contain more soluble and insoluble fiber than the more traditionally eaten fruit inside.

2. You will replenish electrolytes

Anyone who played sports as a kid knows that if muscles are cramping then bananas are what you eat before the big game. The potassium (and electrolytes) in the fruit contributes to muscle building, metabolizing of carbohydrates, and the regulation of acid-base balance throughout the body. Banana peels are equally proficient at supplementing potassium.

3. You will be happier

Banana peels possess high levels of serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter sourced from tryptophan. Serotonin is most commonly regarded as a chemical that governs a body’s mood balance. A deficit can lead to depression and a surplus can lead to giddiness.
  • Interesting note, if you are unfamiliar with the chemical term “Serotonin” it is well known for its link with the illegal drug LSD, which sends one “dropping acid” into a euphoric bliss by producing hyperbolic amounts of serotonin and its neurotransmitters pop off like a thousand-pack of fireworks in slow motion, the likes of which generally leave the user depressed and unable to cope with the dull reality before them once the drug wears off. And, for a more commonplace example of the affects of serotonin, every Thanksgiving we sit on the sofa and watch football unable to move, euphoric and blissful, after eating turkey, which is full of serotonin-producing tryptophan.

4. You will sleep better

Your sleeping troubles can be answered. Tryptophan is commonly prescribed by doctors as a supplement to treat sleep disorders. Insomnia got you down? Don’t peel the banana. Just eat the whole thing.

5. You will decrease your waist line

Banana peels or filled with nutrients that make your body happy and not much else. They are low in calories and abundant in fiber and nutrients that your body needs making them an ideal supplement source for anyone aiming to stay slim.

6. You will help prevent cancer

If you are looking for an additional method to help prevent cancer then look no further. Banana peels are rich in antioxidants and they are comprised of compounds that guard cells from threats of mutation, which typically lead to cancerous tumors.

7. You will strengthen your red blood cells

Red blood cells dispatch oxygen to body tissues constantly. Banana peels include nutrients that strengthen red blood cells by ensuring oxygen distribution and minimizing red blood cell breakdown.

8. You will help your vision

Your vision is critical. Banana peels can optimize the health of your eyes because of their high levels of lutien. Lutien is a compound that aids in night vision capability and it helps prevent cataracts and macular degeneration.

9. You will boost you immune system

Your immune system can always use some help. Because banana peels are so rich in fiber they aid in creating probiotic bacteria, or “good bacteria”, in your colon leading to efficient detox and a better immune system.

10. You need to make sure you only eat organic banana peels

Eating banana peels raw is the easiest, most bitter, and stringiest way to absorb all of its fiber and nutrients but they can also be boiled to soften up the texture and make the taste more palatable. Or, you can drop them into a blender and turn them into liquid. The most important thing to note is that if you do begin consuming banana peels remember that you want to buy organic. The slightly cheaper alternative will be covered in pesticides and insecticides, which will defeat the purpose and impose unintended harms.
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Saturday, 18 March 2017

samson adebayo

Using Flower Essences For Emotional Healing



About Flower Essence Therapy

Use of flower essences is an extremely safe therapy for shifting emotional states which may be causing or perpetuating outward physiological illness. Developed by homeopath, naturopath, and allopath Dr. Edward Bach in the 1930’s, these liquid preparations are intended to work in subtle ways on one’s emotional/spiritual energetic patterns. Through repeated dosage, essences have helped individuals release ‘negative’ emotions or fears, and support transformation to higher states of health and wellness.
While a few ‘formal’ methods are given, there are no hard-and-fast rules for the use of flower essences. It can be best to begin with one of the ‘commonly’ prescribed methods, and explore creative ways to incorporate the flowers into your life as you see fit. Flower essence therapy has a certain flexibility, and will likely be most effective when used in a way that feels right in your life. Here are a few guidelines to take into consideration:

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samson adebayo

7 Reasons To Enjoy That Creamy Yoghurt Today.


A growing number of families are making dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their health today and help ensure good health in the future.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Americans typically consume more calories than they need-without meeting the recommended intakes for a number of nutrients.

Thus people need to choose meals and snacks that are high in nutrients, but low to moderate in calories. Americans seem to be catching on; according to a survey by the Grocery Manufacturers Association, 73 percent of consumers are buying more nutritious and wholesome foods and beverages-such as yogurt-than in the past.

Image result for yoghurt 
The Dannon Company has now listed the seven benefits of yogurt. From calcium and protein to active cultures and nutrients for growth, these benefits give the body an advantage today for tomorrow. Eating yogurt daily helps consumers:
1. Be Fit: Yogurt contains calcium, which can help with weight management.
2. Be Vital: Yogurt is a good source of protein for muscle maintenance.
3. Be Comfortable: Yogurt has active cultures that help milk digestion.
4. Be Strong: Yogurt has calcium, essential for strong bones.
5. Be Nourished: Yogurt contains important nutrients for children’s growth.

6. Be Proactive: Yogurt provides friendly bacteria for your digestive tract.
7. Be Happy: Yogurt is a great-tasting and satisfying part of your healthy diet.

Each day, it’s possible to enjoy all of these benefits by eating Dannon yogurt. The company offers several product lines, including Dannon All Natural, which does not contain any artificial ingredients.
“More and more people are making an investment in their overall health,” says Audrey Cross, associate clinical professor of public health at Columbia University’s School of Public Health. “One way they’re doing this is working more nutritionally dense foods, such as yogurt, into their diets.”

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samson adebayo


PellyJay dishes out the video to his recent dropped record entitled  “MiOFoshi” produced by Seas beats . The video was directed by Ifeanyi Odogwu and shot on location in Ibadan .Enjoy this adorable piece from the stable of NSA
Watch & Download PellyJay - MiOFoshi Video Below:-

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Wednesday, 15 March 2017

samson adebayo

10 Foods You Should Quit Eating (MUST READ)




Because it is based on vegetable rather than animal products, margarine has a completely undeserved reputation for being “light” or “healthy” and many people will choose this over butter. The problem? The vegetable oils that make up many margarines have been hydrogenated so that they will stay solid at room temperature – and this means that they are rich in trans fats. Trans fats are dangerous because they can lead to a build-up of bad cholesterol in the arteries – and this increases your risk for heart attacks and strokes.
hot dogs at cookout

2. Processed Meats

Hot dogs on the fourth of July or a ham and Swiss sandwich are about as American as it gets. But there is a reason why they are on this list of foods that are bad for you. Processed meats might taste incredibly good, but they are not exactly good for you!  As a matter of fact, a study came out just this year which linked an increased or high consumption of processed meats with an increased risk for colon cancer. Unfortunately, this includes not only hot dogs and ham, but deli meats, sausage, bacon and other processed products.
ISTANBUL - NOVEMBER 30, 2011. Bottles of soft drinks on a market shelves on November 30, 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey

3. Soft Drinks

After water, soft drinks (as a group) remain the most popular beverage in the United States. But the Coca Cola generation should beware: the high amounts of sugar (usually in the form of high fructose corn syrup) in these drinks can spell trouble. These beverages raise the levels of blood sugar in the body and over time, this can mean problems like insulin resistance, which can eventually turn into full-blown diabetes. And they won’t help your waistline, either.

SINGAPORE, 20 SEP: Equal artificial sweeteners are being sold in the supermarket in Singapore on 20 September 2014. Equal contains Aspertame,Dextrose and Maltodextrin.

4. Artificial Sweeteners

Nearly every product labeled “diet”, “light” or “sugar free” is going to have some form of artificial sweetener such as sucralose or aspartame. Sadly, it is often people who are trying to reach their weight loss goals who buy such products – but the truth is that these sweeteners have been linked to increased blood sugars and to even more serious problems like an increased risk for diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure. It is better to use small amounts of regular sugar – or better yet, cut the sugar out altogether.
A serving of delicious breaded and deep fried golden brown onion rings.

5. Deep-Fried Foods

Deep-fried foods like French fries, onions rings and the like are also American classics – what diner would be the same without them? But unfortunately, though they taste delicious, they are pretty hard on your body. They have tons of saturated fat because of the way they are prepared which can lead to problems with heart disease as well as obesity and diabetes to boot.
popcorn jumping out of a bowl

6. Microwave Popcorn

Families all over America curl up on the couch for movie night with microwave popcorn. But this, too, is an unhealthy habit. True, many companies offer “light” versions of this treat with less fat or sodium, but that is not the real problem. The problem is actually in the lining of the popcorn bag itself. It contains a chemical called perfluoroctanic acid (PFOA) which has been associated with thyroid gland disorders, cancer and lung disease.

7. Canned Foods

Canned foods – whether it’s tomato soup, beans, or vegetables – are another staple of the American diet and are incredibly convenient. However, the linings of these cans contain a compound called Bisphenol A, or BPA, which leaches into these canned food products. BPA is suspected of interfering with hormone levels and causing problems like early puberty and obesity.
Cooked instant noodles isolated against a white background

8. Instant Noodles

Ramen noodles are the traditional go-to food of college students across the country, but they don’t exactly make for a healthy meal.  They are loaded with calories while provide very few nutrients and are over-the-top high in sodium. Sodium diets are linked to increased blood pressure, which in turn is a major risk factor for heart attacks and strokes. Consumption of these noodles have been linked to increased cholesterol and other health problems as well.

9. White Bread

Who doesn’t remember Wonder Bread sandwiches in their packed lunch every day when they were in school? Sadly, white bread, too, has been exposed for the danger that it is. Because the grain white bread is made from has been stripped of its germ and bran, it has almost no nutrients on its own – these have to be added artificially! It has also been linked to issues like high blood sugar, increased weight and an increased chance for developing diabetes.

10. Soy Products

Like margarine, soy products have a reputation for being healthy – and are a staple in the diets of many vegetarians, vegans and health-conscious people. However, they have compounds called isoflavones which mimic the human hormone estrogen and which can cause issues with fertility and reproduction, puberty and childhood growth and development.
Now you know the foods that are bad for you. Yes, many of these foods are considered to be American classics – but the health risks involved are just not worth adding them to your diet. Look, instead, for healthy alternatives to these favorites, such as organic, grass-fed butter instead of margarine or whole grain bread instead of white. These foods are every bit as delicious and are much better for your body.
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samson adebayo

TOP 8 Easy Ways To Deal with The Noise From Your Snoring Partner


Approximately 37 million American adults snore on a regular basis—and that means many of their partners are walking around like sleep-deprived zombies. As anyone who has ever slept in the same room with a snorer can attest, the sound of a chainsaw going off as you’re trying to get some shut-eye is more than a minor annoyance. In fact, partners of snorers report serious fatigue because the snoring makes it harder to fall and stay asleep.
That sleep deprivation, in turn, can cause all kinds of physical and mental health issues, including irritability, anxiety, daytime fatigue, difficulty concentrating, memory lapses, and decreased work productivity. Sleep deprivation brought on by snoring can also lead to resentment between partners and contribute to a loss of physical and emotional intimacy.
Snoring isn’t all fun and games for the snorer, either. The issue happens when a sleeping person can’t freely move air through their nose and throat; this causes the surrounding tissues to vibrate and make that all-too-familiar nasally roar. Snoring on a regular basis may contribute to high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, hearing loss, and even Alzheimer’s.
So what’s the partner of a snorer to do? Here are eight ways to make sure that you get the sleep you need while prioritizing the health of both you and your partner.

1. Determine whether the snoring is position-dependent

Many people only snore when they sleep on their backs, so encouraging your partner to develop a habit of sleeping on their side may be an easy way to silence the snores. To assist their learning process, try propping up pillows to prevent your partner from flipping onto their back in their sleep. If that’s not cutting it, try sewing a ping pong ball into a small pocket on the back of your partner’s pajama tops—lying on the ball won’t feel comfortable, so your partner will naturally stay off their back while sleeping.

2. Invest in a bigger bed

Snoring will feel less invasive if you have more space between your head and your partner’s offending face. If you have the room, it may be extra helpful to place a wall of pillows between your heads. A comfortable mattress can also make it easier to fall and stay asleep.

3. Drown it out

Some people find relief by wearing headphones to bed and drifting off to soothing sounds or music (Just be sure not to crank the volume as this can lead to hearing loss). A white noise machine, earplugs, or other noise-canceling gadgets may also do the trick.

4. Develop healthy sleep habits

While you may not be able to control whether your partner snores, you can control the steps you take to get ready for bed. A calming bedtime routine will set you up for the best chances of getting a good night’s sleep—snores or no snores. Try to practice these pre-sleep rituals every night (and encourage your partner to join you). Avoid alcohol and caffeine, and don’t smoke, exercise, or eat a big meal close to bedtime. Learn how to cope with insomnia and create a restful sleep environment by keeping the bedroom cool and dark, avoiding exposure to electronics before bed, and designating the bed for sleeping (and sex) only.

5. Have your partner try breathing strips

While they tend to be most effective in treating acute (as opposed to long-term) cases of snoring, nasal strips can be an effective, non-invasive, and side-effect-free treatment for snorers. Strips may be particularly effective for people whose snoring is caused by allergies.

6. Ask your partner to start playing the digeridoo

Yes, it sounds bizarre. But research has suggested that playing the Australian Aboriginal wind instrument—which requires a technique called “circular breathing”—may strengthen muscles in the back of the throat so that they are less likely to collapse at night. Since that collapse is common among snorers, the idea is that training those muscles helps decrease the likelihood of snoring.

7. Try a shift in perspective

The sleep deprivation that’s common in the partners of snorers can lead to irritability and resentment, which only makes it harder to stay in the relaxed state of mind required for sleep. Try to reframe your attitude toward the snoring by thinking of it as the sound of someone you love breathing, rather than the sound of an 18-wheeler on rumble strips. Try to embrace the snoring as a sign that you’re lucky enough to have a live-in partner you care about. If that’s proving difficult, there’s some evidence that hypnotherapy may help you feel a little more charitable toward the snorer in your life.

8. Head to a doctor

If none of these techniques are offering the respite you need, or if your partner snores every night and/or experiences pauses in their breathing while asleep, then it’s time to head to a doctor. While your partner may resist going, remind them that the issue is affecting your relationship and making it harder for you to feel rested and keep your brain sharp. If they still need convincing, try recording them in their sleep and then playing it for them the next morning—odds are good they’ll be more likely to admit to an issue if they’re confronted with irrefutable evidence.
A doctor will help determine if there’s a serious underlying cause, like obstructive sleep apnea, that’s contributing to your partner’s snoring. Treatments for sleep apnea include CPAP machines (which consist of a mask worn over the face), surgery, or an oral appliance that’s worn in the mouth.
If all else fails? You may want to join the 25 percent of American couples who choose to sleep in separate bedrooms. Ultimately, it’s up to the two of you to determine the best way to preserve both parties’ physical and mental health as well as the long-term health of your relationship.

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Tuesday, 14 March 2017

samson adebayo

Top 10 Highly Controversial Medical Issues

Medicine is one of the earliest practices and one of the most ancient sciences that humans apply in their lives. In its root, medicine opposes natural processes of selection and adaptation; thus, it puts people above other living creatures in their intelligent attempts to be influential for a healthy outcome. Various medical approaches are highly inspired by different human cultures and religious beliefs. There are many controversial issues in medicine based on ethical principles. Health care providers in their practices should balance between personal and public benefits. They should not make the situation worse by providing treatment, and they should respect a patient’s autonomy in decision about own health or life. This article identifies 10 highly controversial medical issues.

10. Blood Transfusion

This medical procedure has a long history that saved many lives as well as taking many lives in the process. Some researchers believe that successful blood transfusions were performed by the Incas tribes of South America more than five centuries ago. Their success might be based on the fact that people of the tribe probably had the same blood type.
Documented blood transfusions in Europe, started by Dr. Denys in France in 1667 with a transfusion of sheep’s blood to a human, were not always successful. The milestone discovery of different blood types in 1901 by the Austrian doctor Karl Landsteiner paved the way for safer blood transfusions. However, blood type compatibility is just one factor for complication-free blood transfusion. Different humans have a unique set of compounds in their blood that can create various immune and allergic reactions. Also, there are many life-threatening infections, including HIV and hepatitis B or C viruses that can be delivered from a donor to a recipient during a blood transfusion. Even with modern tests for blood type compatibility and possible infectious contamination, blood transfusion remains a serious procedure with careful considerations of benefits and complications. Some religious groups like Jehovah’s Witnesses oppose blood transfusion as blood is considered to be a sacred substance that cannot be transferred from one human to another.
Ideally, there would be an artificial blood free of individual human antigens and possible infections that would be compatible with anybody; it will be free of potential health hazards and will not put discomfort on personal beliefs. Practically, the main blood function of transporting oxygen is so complicated that we do not know for sure its exact mechanism and cannot yet engineer a similar artificial substance.

9. Organ Transplantation

It literally means “planting” when the organ (rare, multiple organs) is removed from one body and is placed into another (donor—recipient interaction) in order to replace the recipient’s damaged body part. The organ donor might be a brain-dead person that brings many bioethical issues about brain death definition. Often it may influence serious legal debates whether the donor or the family would indeed will to donate organs. Organ transplantation may also create criminal issues like kidnapping people and using them as potential organ donors, or illegal trade of human organs. Some experts say that there are many people in the third world countries who had to sell their kidney or part of their liver to the richer recipients from developed countries to make ends meet. However, it is not the end of possible problems connected with organ transplantation.
After the transplantation is performed, the recipients may undergo complications of organ rejection or from severe side effects of medications that are supposed to prevent various rejection reactions. This experience demonstrates a fine line between saving the recipients life and possible harm for the recipient as the result of this procedure.

8. Autopsy

Image credit
This term from the Greek language translation means “see for myself” and means dissection of a corpse in order to determine a reason of the death. Autopsy allows you to investigate pathological changes in human organs and tissues, and also helps to analyze whether the correct diagnosis and treatment were provided for this person. This procedure paved its way through underestimating and prohibitions—just think of the scene at the cemetery from the Mark Twain book, “Tom Sawyer.” It took about 200 years, from the 17th to 19th century, to develop proper understanding of human anatomy and standardized autopsy protocols. However, at Western hospitals, the number of autopsies continues to decline since the middle part of the 20 century because families often do not want to give permission for autopsy on the dead loved one. Such a practice creates controversy between compliance with family wishes and possibility to investigate pathological processes and possible medical errors that could benefit other living people.

7. Physicians and Tortures

Image credit
This issue is extremely controversial and usually is not widely discussed. Many physicians agree that their participation in tortures opposes the goal of medicine for better human well being. However, there is a rhetorical question–what to do if information obtained from the “bad gay” will help to save many innocent lives. Also, will the absence of the physician supervision make the torture outcome better for the tortured person? Even if there is not much information, there is speculation that some physicians cooperated with people who implemented torture processes.

6. Euthanasia

This word is composed of two Greek roots and means “good death.” In its common meaning, euthanasia is aimed to terminate the life of those people suffering from debilitating diseases. Legal definitions of euthanasia are various in different countries. Euthanasia can be voluntary (when an ill person acts to terminate own life, like taking lethal dose of certain medications) and involuntary, when an ill person receives life termination actions of another person. Euthanasia is also considered as active, when some substances given to the ill person, would terminate a life, and passive, when withhold of treatment like oxygen mask or antibiotics would be create incompatible with life situation. Active euthanasia is generally prohibited, but there is exception to this rule for children and their families in the Netherlands known as “Groningen protocol.” Euthanasia issues created two active camps of life defenders and right to die activists. Because of various cultures and religious views, euthanasia will remain very controversial theme among physicians and bioethicists. Recent death of Dr. Jack Kevorkian highlighted a physicians complicity in euthanasia.

5. Patients with Debilitating Illnesses

This issue has strong ties with euthanasia. “To treat or not to treat” certain conditions will be an issue bringing many discussions and controversies. Some health care professionals suggest that use of the huge amount of medical costs in the last 2-3 months of life for a terminally ill person creates unsustainable situation for medical funds; and in many countries, it puts the medical system into deep debt. Others argue that such statements are the health care system rationalizing. Such critics compare these medical practices with Action T4 executed by Nazi during the Second World War. Paradoxically, this Action had a name of “Euthanasia Program,” but this program definitely targeted people with severe physical or mental conditions without their consent for own euthanasia.

4. Pregnancy Related Issues

Modern medicine allows an advance degree of autonomy for a patient, meaning that a person has a right to make their own decision about own body. Autonomy opposes paternalism, when someone who knows better makes decisions. This paternalism model reflects the relationship between a father and a child when decision making is assigned to a more knowledgeable person. However, autonomy creates a great controversy when we have a deal with a pregnant woman. Her body belongs to her, but her body is also a source for the life of a new person. According to the autonomy rules, a pregnant woman may refuse any procedures, like blood transfusion or Cesarean section, even if without them her baby might die. Also, a right to perform medical abortion is based on a patient’s autonomy. This practice is a very controversial issue as health care providers should deal with two (or more lives) and often make non-beneficial for one part decisions.

3. In Vitro Fertilization

In 1978, the first child was born using test-tube techniques. This practice gave hope to thousands of people to have their own biological children if their certain medical conditions were prohibiting a couple from having children naturally. This outstanding medical achievement was recognized last year with the Nobel Prize. However, there are many critics of Dr. Edwards pioneering decision of infertility treatment. The main ethical issue was that usually many embryos should be created in test-tubes, but only a few of them are implanted into womb and develop into human. In-vitro technique creates many debates how ethical to destroy “unwanted” embryos. There are also many questions about long-term health prognoses for embryos frozen for 10-20 years and implanted into a woman after this long dormitory. Many of us also remember the story of “octo-mom”, when the woman became a mother of six, and later eight children as the result of in-vitro fertilization and implantation of multiple embryos. Many experts question the adequate decision making capacity of this woman (and the doctor who did this procedure). These critics question her ability to provide well being for her children and have concerns about health issues resulting from a very unnatural early development for these babies.

2. Embryonic stem cells

Every cell in our body has its unique functions, like a red blood cell that transports oxygen or a pancreatic beta cell that produces insulin. A human body consists of billions of cells with very specialized functions. However, all of these very different cells incredibly have just one ancestor, the very first conception cell resulting from the merging a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm. We are thrilled and do not know for sure how this single cell gives the development of billions of other cells, and how information which cell would perform a certain function is transferred. Such cells with unlimited possibilities to be developed into the certain type of cells are called stem cells. Logically, stem cells are typical for an embryo, even if many researchers try to determine the presence of stem cells in a human body later in life. The idea to use stem cells to harvest new organs and tissues sounds tremendously promising for many people whose own organs and tissues become damaged. However, the opponents of embryonic stem cell use warn us whether the price for well being of one person should be paid by the destruction of a potential life of the other person.

1. The Best Possible Health Care for Everybody

This main controversy determines future development of the medicine. New medical diagnostic and treatment techniques require huge financial investments and constant financial return to keep medical companies and health care providers in business. Ideally, it would be great to provide every person with every possible medical treatment that the person needs; practically, if the person cannot pay this fair share for themselves and for own family, how these skyrocketing medical expenses can be paid?
This article has identified 10 the most controversial medical issues. This list is not all inclusive. Each individual can add additional issues based on their expediencies. But in the end, we all agree that health care is complex, costly, and often controversial.


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